Calogaya biatorina (A. Massal.) Arup, Fröden & Söchting

Nordic J. Bot. 31, 1: 38 (2013).

Basionym: Physcia elegans var. biatorina A. Massal., Atti Inst. Veneto Sci. lett., ed Arti, Sér. 2 3(App. 3): 51 (1852).


Protolog: Data lacking.

Type locality: Italy: Veneto: Verona. Massalongo Lich. Exs. Ital. Nr. 63 (1855) (VER!-herb. A. Massal. - lectotype). "Viget ad saxa calcaria jurassica provinciae Veronensis in locis apricis."

Barcode: Data lacking.

Coordinates: Data lacking.

Thallus: crustose, epilithic, placodioid, tightly attached to the substratum, forming rosettes of 2-20 mm in diam., often confluent, color ranging from orange to reddish-orange, occasionally more ochraceous, lacking pruina, K+ (purple). Central areoles of 0.2-1.4(1.8) mm in diam., granular or polygonal, flat or convex, often formed from lobe fragmentation. Marginal lobes elongated, often finger-like, slightly contiguous or imbricate, densely branched, mostly flat and attached to the substratum, frequently widened at the apex, 0.4-3(5) mm long and 0.3-1.5 mm wide at the apex. Thallus in section 100-250(350) µm thick. Upper cortex 10.5-55(75) µm thick, with a brownish-orange pigmented external layer 6-20.5(30.5) µm thick, and a hyaline layer 4.5-35.5(45) µm scleroplectenchymatous type A or B, or occasionally scleroprosoplectenchymatous, formed by more or less irregularly arranged hyphae, with an elongated cellular lumina 1.7-7.5(8) x 1.5-4.5(5) µm, almost devoid of visible superficial crystals when examined with polarized light. Algal layer more or less continuous, 40-80(100) µm thick. Medulla extremely lax, with hyphae 2.5-4.5 µm thick. Apothecia pseudolecanorine or zeorine, often highly abundant, 0.3-0.8 mm in diam., rounded, scattered or grouped on the central areoles, rarely also present on the base or lobes, basally constricted. Disk flat, color ranging from shiny orange to dark red, slightly darker than the thallus, without pruina, K+ (purple), smooth/even. Margin with or without superficial differentiation between proper and thalline margins. If these are not distinguishable, the thalline margin is slightly lighter than the disk; if they are distinguishable, the proper margin has a shinier color then the disk and is 30-50 µm wide, whereas the thalline margin has the same color as thallus and is 80-130(200) µm wide, without pruina, smooth to crenulated, persistent, not very prominent, or only slightly in young apothecia, sometimes remaining hidden at the base of the apothecia. Epihymenium 8-12(15) µm thick, orange-brownish, K+ (purple). Hymenium 60-90(100) µm tall, hyaline. Subhymenium and hypothecium hyaline, the second having a sclero-prosoplectenchymatous structure. Algal layer below the hypothecium more or less continuous, with some clusters, reaching the cortex of the apothecia. Hyphae beneath the algal layer arranged forming a sclero-prosoplectenchymatous structure. Parathecium fairly narrow, 30-60(90) µm wide, with hyphae radially arranged, sclero-prosoplectenchymatous or scleroplectenchymatous type B. Paraphyses septate, simple or with some branching starting from the base, 1.5-3.5(4) µm wide at the base, often with the last two or three cells broadened, 3.3-8.5 µm wide. Asci 50-75 x 11-18 µm, claviform and octosporate. Ascospores polarilocular, hyaline, wide ellipsoid, (9)11-12.4-14(16.5) x (5)6.5-7.3-8(9.5) µm; with an equatorial thickening ('septum') (1.5)2-2.7-3.5(4.5) µm, a length/width ratio (1.2)1.4-1.7-2(2.6), and a length/equatorial thickening ratio (2.7)3.4-4.7-6.2(9.8) [n = 535]. (Gaya 2009: 59-60).

Photobiont: Photobiont chlorococcoid, with cells 7-25(30) µm in diam.

Chemistry: No lichen substances (Gaya 2009: 59-60).