Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.

Lich. Envir. Paris: 39 (1896) [1895].

Basionym: Lichen physodes L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1144 (1753).


Protologue: Data lacking.

Protologue type data: Sine loco.

Type locality: Sine loco (LINN 1273.77 - lectotype, Howe, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 39: 201, 1912, specified by Jørgensen et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 115: 338, 1994).

Type locality coordinates: Data lacking.

ITS barcode: Data lacking.

Description: Lichen. Thallus foliose, to 10 cm diam., loosely adnate, very variable, rosette-forming to irregularly spreading or subfruticose; lobes variable in shape from broad and overlapping to more elongate and discrete, somewhat ascending, upper surface grey, glossy; lower surface black; soralia lipshaped, developing at lower side of the tips. Apothecia rather rare, laminal, to 6 mm diam.; disc reddish brown. Spores broadly ellipsoid, 6- 9 x 4- 5 μm. Pycnidia common, laminal, often in groups close to lobe ends, immersed, black. Conidia slightly dumbbell shaped, 5-8 x 1 μm.

Photobiont: Data lacking.

Chemistry: Cortex C-, K+ yellow, KC-, PD-; atranorin and chloroatranorin. Medulla C-, K+ slowly reddish brown, KC+ red, PD+ red, UV+ pale blue; physodic acid, physodalic acid, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid and small amounts of 2’-O-methylphysodic acid (accessory) and protocetraric acid.

Ecology: Corticolous on both conifers and deciduous trees and shrubs, lignicolous, saxicolous or occasionally terricolous in coastal and mountain heaths. Found from sea level to high altitudes in the Scandinavian mountains. Rather resistant to air pollution and common also in urban areas, often on man-made substrates (Nordic Flora).

Distribution type: Northern circumpolar, arctic temperate.

Taxonomy: Data lacking.


Distribution Database: Distributions

Distribution Database: Discover Life

Picture Database: Tropical Lichens

Molecular Database: Genbank

Synonym Database: Index Fungorum

Synonym Database: Mycobank